Understanding Nicotine Strengths and Percentages

Every new vaper knows the confusion. Shopping for your usual 12 mg/mL nicotine level, you don’t see the option there. Instead, the e-juice comes in either 0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 1.2% and 1.8% nicotine. So what do you do? What’s the difference between nicotine strengths written as mg/mL and those written as percentages? How do you convert from one to the other?

Nicotine strength in mg/mL

Most of the time, e-liquid nicotine strengths are shown in mg/mL, which stands for milligrams per milliliter. This means that for every milliliter of e-liquid in the bottle, there is the specified amount of nicotine.

For a 6 mg/mL e-juice, this means every milliliter contains 6 mg of nicotine. If you need to work out the total amount of nicotine in a bottle or in a tank, just multiply the strength in mg/mL by the number of milliliters of it you have.

For example, if you fill up a 5 mL vape tank with 6 mg/mL e-liquid, you have 5 mL × 6 mg/mL = 30 mg of nicotine in your tank. In the same way, a 10 mL bottle of 6 mg/mL e-liquid contains 60 mg of nicotine in total.

Nicotine strengths as percentages

Nicotine strengths as percentages are very similar, but a little easier to understand. Instead of combining a mass (in mg) and a volume (in mL), percentages use the volumes of both. In simple terms, figures like 0.3% or 1.8% just tell you how much of the liquid in the bottle is nicotine.

This means that if you have some e-liquid containing 1.2% nicotine, any amount you measure out will be 1.2% nicotine and 98.8% PG, VG and flavorings.

Technically, this measurement is called “nicotine by volume,” in the same way the percentages on a bottle of liquor are “alcohol by volume” or ABV for short. “Nicotine by volume” is sometimes shortened to NBV too.

You could also work out the percentage by mass, if you wanted to, but e-liquid companies usually don’t do this. We work with e-juice in mL, so they do to.

Converting from mg/mL to percent and back

Understanding Nicotine Strengths and Percentages

Converting from a nicotine strength in mg/mL to a percentage is really easy. Just divide the amount in mg/mL by 10. So if you have a 6 mg/mL e-juice, this is equal to a 0.6% e-juice. An 18 mg/mL e-juice is equal to a 1.8% e-juice. And if you had a high-strength nicotine base of 72 mg/mL, this would be 7.2%

The conversion couldn’t be any simpler. To convert back from percentages to mg/mL, just multiply it by 10.

More detail on combining weights and volumes

Practically, this is all you’ll need to know to switch between percentages and mg/mL values confidently. But if you’re interested in why exactly it works out like that, here’s a bit more information.

The issue is slightly complicated because values in mg/mL mix mass and volume. This convention originated in China, where the first e-cigarettes were made. It wouldn’t be a problem, but to work out a percentage, you need two volumes to use, not one volume and one mass.

To work it out for yourself, you need to know how much volume each mg of nicotine occupies in liquid form. Nicotine has a density of 1.01 grams per cubic centimeter, which means that 1,010 mg of pure nicotine takes up one milliliter. We can use this to convert mg of nicotine to mL of nicotine.

First, we need to find the total amount of nicotine we’re considering, in mg. As covered earlier, this just means multiplying the nicotine strength – say 6 mg/mL – by the size of the bottle – say 10 mL. So in this case we have 60 mg of nicotine. Using the density of nicotine, this works out to about 0.059 mL of pure nicotine.

So to work out the percentage, you divide the volume of the nicotine by the total volume of the e-liquid and then multiply the result by 100. This means that the 10 mL bottle of 6 mg/mL e-liquid has (0.59 mL / 10 mL ) × 100% = 0.59% nicotine. Since we don’t need to be this accurate, it would be listed on the bottle as 0.6%.

You won’t need to actually do this, but this explains why all you need to do to go from mg/mL to a percentage is divide by 10. Nicotine has a similar density to water, so it’s basically 1 g per mL, and this makes the math really easy.

Congratulations: You’ll never order the wrong e-juice again

Understanding Nicotine Strengths and Percentages

If you aren’t too traumatized from the impromptu math, you can now confidently explain what mg/mL means, what the percentage values on e-liquids mean and convert between them easily. No matter where you’re ordering from, you’ll know exactly what you’re getting.

Lee is a writer and vaper from the UK. He quit smoking (without intending to) in 2012, and now spends his time writing about the conflict between science and ideology in the vaping debate. He's a firm believer that smokers deserve the facts on tobacco harm reduction without the fearmongering. He probably drinks too much tea.

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1

I have juul pods that are 6% nicotine so I was wondering what the equivalent would be for vape juice

Jim McDonald
Staff2

The strongest JUUL pods (sold in the U.S. and Canada) contain e-liquid that is 5% nicotine by weight, which JUUL says is 59 mg/mL. Liquid that strong is only useful in a tiny, low-power device like a JUUL. Anything that puts out more power than that would probably cause an instant headache.

3

I’m sorry but this makes no sense to me. Let’s say I buy a 12mg/ml nicotine strength bottle of 10ml juice. If the density of nicotine you around the same as water, this would mean I have (12 mg/ml x 10ml) 120mg of nicotine. So in that 10ml bottle I have 120mg of nicotine and -110ml of ejuice? Wtf. I’m confused AF.

Also consider that the medically accepted lethal dose of nicotine for an adult is 60mg. So there must be something wrong with the math.

Jim McDonald
Staff4

Yes, 12 mg/ml x 10 ml = 120 mg total of nicotine. A milligram is 1/1000th of a gram.

The 60 mg dose figure was never right. It was based on a 19th century scientist who experimented on himself and pulled that number out of thin air. According to nicotine expert Bernd Mayer, the figure for a likely lethal dose for adults is 500-1,000 mg.
[Edited to correct spelling mistake.]

Jim McDonald
Staff5

Comment deleted

6

How can 120mg of nicotine fit in a 10ml bottle? that is just weird.

Jim McDonald
Staff7

There are 1,000 mg in 1 gram (or 1 mL)
(1 mL weighs about 1 gram)
12 mg/mL = 1.2%
120 mg/10 mL also = 1.2%

9

First time vaping.started with 60ml and 70 pg. brand is naked. Dehydrated my mouth so bad I am sick.Dont know if I vaped too many times in a row or what. Please give me some advice. Can’t stand this feeling but can’t stand smell of cigarettes anymore after day one.

Jim McDonald
Staff10

Hi Mary. PG and VG are hygroscopic, meaning that they absorb the moisture from your mouth, throat and esophagus. That’s why it’s a good idea to drink water when you vape to stay hydrated. You might also be vaping so quickly that you’re getting too much nicotine, which can make you feel dizzy and even nauseous. You didn’t mention the nic strength you’re using, but the easy solution is to go a little more slowly. You’ll get the hang of it!

11
Suzanne Ladzinski Rager

Duh!

Jeremy Mann
Staff12

Yeah, you’d think so. I bought some juice labeled 03 mg on the box, and on the bottle it says 0.03%. I called the company to explain their error, and they were trying to tell me I had my conversions wrong.

Then again, I think carrying batteries around in the pocket is a no brainer too, but clearly simple matters are not always so simple for everyone.

13
Darren Bentley

Some are juice clueless , as they use white label juuces and labels mixed up with there company name on them and they dont actually make bottle or label them up just sell them as there own

Jeremy Mann
Staff14

Good point. I know exactly what you are saying!

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